It is a fact that attendance at any church is optional. But most denominations don’t want anyone to think about that and a total of none will remind a person of it!
Further, and if one dares, it doesn’t take a lot of extra-religion, secular research to see all the physical damage done by religions, in general.
But what’s more difficult to assess (and a topic one will is unlikely to read about in the SS quarterly!) is data related to all the psychological damage done to god’s children-both women and men-by institutions whose most fundamental assumption is that human beings are a blight on god’s creation.
A pop culture primer is M. Scot Peck’s book “People of The Lie”, although I suspect there are more recent-and probably more scholarly-works.
(Spoiler alert: According to Peck “The People” are just as likely found in church pews as in prison.)