Here's a really interesting American Public Media program on conscientious objectors and the World War II Starvation Study. The participants were by-and-large patriotic conscientious objectors who opposed the killing but risked their lives for research. This radio piece includes some fascinating archival audio and references historic peace churches and Seventh-day Adventists in Takoma Park, MD.
Battles for Belief in WWII (the first ten minutes or so.)
This is a companion discussion topic for the original entry at http://spectrummagazine.org/node/4095