How Healthy is Adventist Eschatology? Reflections on Contextual Imbalance (3)

I have been examining the structural soundness of Adventist Eschatology from various perspectives. The first important level of reflection to take in account is the biblical one. Adventist Eschatology must start as a “Biblical hermeneutics” of the Eschatology expressed in the Bible. We cannot start elsewhere. We must remember though, that while remaining biblical, the understanding of Eschatology is not always crystal-clear, definitive nor homogeneous. In fact, biblical Eschatology has an internal unsolvable tension and complexity nurtured and legitimated by its double soul: apocalyptic and messianic. And it’s not easy to remain faithful to this double belonging. The history of Adventism shows, particularly in our days, an imbalance in our hermeneutics – toward the apocalyptic and away from the messianic. But the challenge doesn’t stop here, because we humans are not destined to be closed up in a book, even a sacred one. Our life is woven at the crossroads of various belongings and experiences. For this reason Adventist Eschatology can’t be true and balanced if it remains faithful only to the Bible.

This necessitates a second level of reflection, bound to the community itself – to us. Without giving up our attachment to the Bible, we must also be able to articulate our Eschatology in relation to ourselves, because the age we live in – with the particular expectations, fears and attitudes of our present identity, individually or collectively – are not neutral in relation to the theological and doctrinal statements we make on Eschatology. Eschatology is never an abstract and trans-temporal exercise. It always belongs, in its form and formulation, to an historical and situated subject. The articulation of Hebrew Eschatology, for instance, was not the same before or after the exile. The Old Testament Eschatology expressed by the prophets couldn’t have been articulated this way in another historical period. The biblical prophets’ Eschatology expresses a typical post-exilic perspective. It presupposes the irreversible failure of their religious system, therefore the main thrust is no longer “reformation” but “redemption” (A. Neher). In the same way articulation of Adventist eschatology today must remain faithful to our pioneers but certainly not merely copy them. This would be the worst mistake. And this exercise of interpreting what we are today in the light of our own developmental identity is what I call an “Ecclesiological Hermeneutics” of our own community. It’s true that our community needs to line up with biblical Eschatology. But it’s also true that our biblical articulation of Eschatology must line up with the essentials of what we are today. The historical subject never disappears but contributes to articulate the biblical message on Eschatology. This is what the Bible teaches us. So what Adventism is today, in its heterogeneity, pluralism and complexity, is also “theologically relevant” for formulating our own understanding of Eschatology. The meaning and success of this “Ecclesiological Hermeneutics” then, depends on the perceptive capacity and wisdom which a community has toward itself. At present we are not very aware of our own historical and social profile, quantitatively and qualitatively, and how that impacts our eschatology and theology in general.

But a third kind of reflection now emerges. “Biblical” and “community” understanding must be completed with the reflection of our socio-cultural “context” in relation to Eschatology. No church can remain healthy and faithful to the whole bible if it doesn’t develop a balanced “Hermeneutics of society” – of its own socio-cultural milieu. And again the socio-cultural context of the Adventist pioneers must always be kept in mind but should not impose its paradigms and categories on us today. This is why I speak in favor of this “three Hermeneutics” and their continuous interaction because, among other reasons, understanding the Bible, ourselves and today’s society, takes time to develop. What appears at first sight is not necessarily true for any of these three instances. Consequently the final Adventist statement on Eschatology today can’t be one we copy from our pioneers, not even one we think we pick up from the bible. It must necessarily be mediated by interpretation and understanding, played at these three levels of experience. So let’s now explore this third level which concerns understanding Eschatology in relation to our current socio-cultural context.

1. A Courageous and Pro-active Premillennialist Option

Historically Adventism has chosen a premillenialist understanding of Eschatology. Premillennialism, in Christian Eschatology, is the belief that Jesus will physically return to the earth (the Second Coming) before the Millennium. Premillennialism is based upon a literal interpretation of Revelation 20:1-6, which describes Jesus' thousand-year reign taking place after the “Second Coming”. We Adventists didn’t invent the “Premillennialist option”, but we have given it probably its best and most typical expression. However, the premillenialist view is a minority one across the large spectrum of Christian communities. Two specifications are necessary here.

First, Premillennialism is not limited to expressing a chronological sequence of final events. It also expresses a particular ontological understanding of human malaise, which is neither transitory nor superficial. It’s radical and structural. Consequently humanity itself cannot resolve the situation. Christ must come first – before the millennium – because it’s up to him resolve what we humans cannot. And he will resolve it in the Millennium. This then is a cosmological understanding of Evil, not just an existential, social or political evil that might be solved in human history with the best of our efforts. It is a radical evil that makes God’s transcendental intervention necessary. This is what Adventist premillennialism teaches. A radical pessimism toward human history and destiny. Postmillennialism, in contrast, has a more optimistic view.

Second, this premillennialist and postmillennialist description of Christian Eschatology really emerged in the 19th century. And was probably much more influenced by the socio-economic-political context than by the Bible itself. In fact, at that time religious postmillennialism was transversal and diffuse in its various forms. But its optimism and certainty was derived from a new trust in human progress, an optimism that soon also found a religious expression. It was the socio-cultural context that probably influenced and pushed Christianity to postmillennialist positions.

2. A Messianic Euphoric Context (19th Century)

Eschatology secularizes outreach from churches to society with churches then influencing and transforming society positively with its future-oriented focus. This secularized Eschatology assumes that the world is becoming more enlightened, fairer, and just. The doctrine of progress promotes the sense that opportunity is on the rise, and old prejudices will wither away. The belief in progress had already emerged with the Enlightenment. But with the industrial revolution, in the 19th century, this trust really became universal. According to this view, humanity was perfectible. Education and opportunity would allow people to understand the world, improve it, and create a better society. Americans particularly loved this idea because progress as an intellectual construction goes back to the origins of the United States. As a country, in the aftermath of its successful revolution against the mighty British Empire, the U.S. was celebrated as a new beginning, a departure from old, failed, European ways. America would have freedom and opportunity, and avoid the perils of the European class hierarchy, in which the children of old aristocratic families enjoyed options unavailable to everyone else. The U.S., it was thought, would be different: open to immigrants, full of opportunity, with land free for the taking. It cut a new path, one that promised improvement, a break from the past. Over the course of the nineteenth century a selective reading of American history allowed this view to flourish. The U.S. grew in extent, population and wealth. Science made strides, as did industry. A vast array of immigrants from various countries and religions came to the United States and became citizens. Helped by a national public school movement, everyone learned about a past of freedom and opportunity, and the importance of upholding these traditions. The end of slavery – although hard fought and replaced at the end of the Civil War by a less-than-enlightened labor system for freed slaves– was easily incorporated into this story. An optimistic narrative of American cultural development posited continual improvement.

Adventist premillennialist Eschatology is contextually timely because it tries to resist the arrogance of this new "religion" of human progress. It does this theologically and spiritually, but not culturally and sociologically, because Adventism itself is – paradoxically – an expression of this trust in human capacity. That’s visible in Adventist ethical perfectionism or in today’s Adventist administrative utilitarianism.

3. An Apocalyptic Pessimistic Context (21th Century)

But presently, believing in progress seems harder. The current cultural backlash gives much cause to be disheartened. Gains by women, immigrants and others are viciously ridiculed by politicians like Donald Trump – to great applause. Yet even before this recent public embrace of the politics of hatred and ridicule, evidence has mounted that the simple narrative of progress has failed to account for much. The twentieth century, which according to the narrative of progress ought to have witnessed vast improvement, gave us the Holocaust and two World Wars. As a society we have largely given up on the perfectibility of human nature. Support for universal education and the conviction that education offers limitless opportunity is on the wane as well. And we now know that once-touted industrial development came at huge environmental and social costs.

Argentinean born psychiatrist and philosopher Miguel Benasayag describes our current historical time as the season of “cultural sadness”(“Les passions tristes: Souffrance psychique et crise sociale”). Appropriating and applying Spinoza’s category of “sad passions” he describes the diffuse psychological pessimism particularly present today in European young people, but he tries to read it on a socio-cultural level. The individual pessimism would be, according to him, the result and further extension, on a personal level, of a larger and more structural orientation of European society as a whole. Benasayag’s differentiated diagnosis on pessimism is important because, beyond its descriptive validity, it also opens up a new therapeutic horizon. Psychological or psychiatric interventions here are definitely limited and insufficient because they don’t address the issue of psychological suffering at its source: as a cultural perspective, as philosophical and anthropological “Weltanschauung”. At this level a true “meta-noia” is needed – a cultural conversion, able to re-orient and re-organize priorities, habits, strategies and expectations differently; in short, a paradigm shift.

How then is Adventist Eschatology articulating its message in this new and different context? When the cultural context contained excessive euphoria our pioneers succeeded, at least partially, to balance it by articulating an Adventist Eschatology with strong apocalyptic tones. But now, in this dramatically changed context of uncertainty and doubt, we can’t repeat that same apocalyptic formula. Without giving up the apocalyptic component that every Christian Eschatology should preserve, we must certainly try to be much more Messianic. More messianic not only in fidelity to the Bible itself but also in response to an intelligent reading of our own socio-cultural context. Our structural premillennialist position must not push us to necessarily embrace a radical and unilateral apocalyptic pessimistic vision of humanity and society.

Hanz Gutierrez is a Peruvian theologian, philosopher, and physician. Currently, he is Chair of the Systematic Theology Department at the Italian Adventist Theological Faculty of “Villa Aurora” and director of the CECSUR (Cultural Center for Human and Religious Sciences) in Florence, Italy.

Previous Spectrum columns by Hanz Gutierrez can be found at:

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yet apocalyptic pessimisom has invaded the world markets to the extent that a market crash is predicted to be just months away. Twitter is full of it. Only bombast exceeds which certainly feeds fear and isolation only the nature of the end time exists among pundits. The Adventist view offers no hope.

I am a recovering eschatologist. I used to rush to discussions about the details of prophecies about end-time events. Then I made a horrifying discovery: they were neither drawing me closer to God, or effective at drawing others to God. Worse still, such discussions were driving people out of the church. After all, why should we expect arguing about God to make him appear attractive enough for people to want to follow Him? Dissecting scripture like a frog in Biology class may teach us facts about God but it doesn’t make us fall in love with Him. Instead, it is the ultimately non-scholastic experience of encountering His love and being freed from sin by His amazing power that is both the most important thing we can know about Him and what makes us want to know Him.

So, why do so many pursue eschatology as the primary focus of their spiritual experience? It is the Satanic illusion that the pursuit of knowledge will make us authorities about God and that others will listen to our teaching because of our knowledge. If that was true then the church would be growing far faster.


Another important consideration would be a person’s mental structure. An individual who was raised in a chaotic family environment or subjected to trauma during his formative years would be more nihilistic with his outlook and would manifest in his choice of eschatology.

When I hear church members interpret bible prophecies, I take interest not to prepare for the future times but to understand how life experiences can influence mental development trajectories. Perhaps cognitive therapy might be more beneficial than blaming Satan?


Hanz, I am sorry you chose to interject partisan US politics in your article.

Gains by women, immigrants and others are viciously ridiculed by politicians like Donald Trump – to great applause.<<

Please give “specific examples” since you have chosen this path, which, in my opinion should not be a part of a “theological” article obviously placed for some “people pleasing” personal sentiment.

Trump has successful, intelligent, confident daughters/sons and a woman Press Secretary Sanders that are viciously attacked by the press daily. Yes, He attacks “illegal immigration” but not legal immigrants. There is a difference, you know…or don’t?

Pat Travis, M.Div.

PS. How is Italian Government with unsustainable debt working out for you?

Secondly, Why do you overlook the theology of the 20th Century that gave us “Christian Century Magazine” with the progressive outlook for “League of Nations” and a Christian socio-political- religious wonderful outcome? This “progressive/liberal” mentality was later proved false by WW1 &2 and countered by Carl Henry and “Christianity Today.”


Professor Guttierrez,

You state

I could not disagree with you more.

Unemployment figures for Hispanics in the US.
(a largely immigrant demographic) )

US blacks have also achieved the lowest unemplument rate in history.

As for women, their unemployment figures are the lowest in multiple decades.

Why would Trump ridicule his own superb achievements in expanding the job market ?

Trump is genuinely ecstatic and exuberant about the gains made by women, blacks and Hispanics, more particularly since rightly, he takes credit for it. His tax cuts, and deregulation have primed this job market!

Particularly in light of the abysmal,economic record of his predecessor!

Your insightful illumination of end time events, was most pertinent and provocative. Thank you !

Eschatology both numbs and angers me

Numbs me, because of the plethora of presumptuous pronouncements of its immanence.

Infuriates me for the following :

Your statement :

The monumental, monstrous, malignant MISERY of those egregious events apparently left the Angels, the “universe”, and the “unfallen beings” utterly unfazed, numbingly nonchalant, and completely uncaring.

Why are they not clamoring to God to FAST FORWARD the Second Coming ??

These Angels
flaunt abject, abysmal apathy,
when confronted with appalling atrocities.

Why are they not aggressively advocating to end this avalanche of evil ??

Their inaction both numbs and infuriates me.



The worst war is always the one that impacts us personally. We don’t need to inflate the pain cause by these 20th century forms of misery; misery is what defines this planet. At any given moment, how many are on their death beds - how many are suffering in pain - how many are suffering at the hands of evil. Multiply those by the millennia of human history and we get a pretty gruesome spectacle for the “unfallen universe” to witness. How much more of this does the universe need to see before it’s convinced “sin is bad”…

I’s absurd that God’s love-filled host needs to witness the demise of earth’s civilizations, along with a handful of self-absorbed faithful, victoriously marching to Zion, in order that God be vindicated. This, while earth writhes in misery as the result of that cosmic war when “the devil and his angels” were dropped upon us.

Assuming evi is the YANG for the YIN defined as “good”, and the two have always existed side by side, (which seems to be the case, given that “war in heaven”), all creation must have the opportunity to CHOOSE “whom it serves”. Also given, there is no better teaching tool than experience, we must suffer the consequences of our choices before we GET that our only power in this universe, comes from God. On our own, we fail. We fail at all - our personal battle with sin; with death; with human machinations to solve the earth’s sundry problems. Not until “there is no more hope for a humanly manipulated UTOPIA” - when the earth sits at the brink of annihilation and no human has any hope of meeting Christ as He returns, will the human race finally see it’s true need for God. Like Jesus said, a time will come when there would be no one left on earth to welcome him back if he delayed any longer. There is no perfected group to hail him at his return - only a battle-scarred and contrite one.


Your first paragraph eloquently articulates the awful ongoing anguish / angst of humankind.

Does God encapsulate planet Earth in a black out blanket of curtained censorship ??

If not, how do utopian “unfallen beings” on other edenic planets tolerate the invasion of their bliss, with LIVE STREAMING of earth’s ongoing ugliness??

We switch channels when diabolical events discomfort us,

If they are not active spectators how can they adjudicate the outcome of the war between good and evil?

Why are they such reluctant referees, jaundiced jurymen, obstructionist umpires ??

EGW’s Great Controversy saga, which we eagerly embraced as children, becomes torn in tatters, shredded with skepticism, demolished with doubt., consumed with incredulity.

Because her concoction is not credible…


Hey William, nice to see you out here. Haven’t seen you since the a-days!

The sad fact might be that we would rather put God on a board, pinned like a two dimensional felt dragon (or rather actually like a splayed formaldehyde preserved sophomoric dissection), and claim we have the exclusive decoder ring to claim exclusive intelligence, unavailable to others unless they “buy the ring”.

Not certain we need more head based worship, or hand based worship, but suspect, as you allude, we need more heart based worship.


In the great controversy, Jesus won without a political view. History (political, social and economic) influence christianity until He comes. That is the reason that all of our mess will resolve in the millenium.

I totally agree with you that our personal experience plays a large role in how we relate to God because that is where we see the power of God working in us in the most personal and transformative ways. However, other than His promise to return and take those who love him to heaven to live with him for eternity I don’t find end time events being the primary focus of the ministry of Jesus. The only time we find Jesus talking about end time events is in answer to a question, yet there are those in the church for whom end time events are their first and foremost spiritual topic. That contrasts with the ministry model of Jesus who went about doing good works and touching others with the love and power of God. His instruction to people was simple: go and tell others what God had done for them. The results were dramatic because when he returned entire villages came to be healed, to have demons cast-out and to hear his teaching.

Who has not been raised in a family that is chaotic to some degree? Using terms like “nihilism” and suggesting someone else might benefit from cognitive therapy is a convenient way to defend pride that our situation is better than another person’s life setting and our challenges are somehow less severe. Doing that causes us to overlook a massive ministry opportunity God gives us because it is having life experience that allows us to identify with the struggles of others that allows us to share how God’s love and power have helped us through those same challenges and changed us. Doing that draws people into loving Him, too. The study of end time events may follow at some point but it is rarely the first point of conversation or study.

We need to recognize the reality that Satan is “going about like a roaring lion seeking who he may devour.” If he can get people focused primarily on end time events then they are under his control as severely as if they were possessed by demons because they are not following the ministry model of Jesus and not touching others with God’s transforming power and love. Such a spiritual focus builds pride in how much a person knows about God instead of having a relationship with the Holy Spirit that empowers them to love others and draw them into loving Him, too.


You have quite the way with words!

About that frog in Biology class, I learned enough to pass the test but couldn’t wait to get out of the lab! Though I had been wearing gloves it took a whole lot of hand washing and a day or two to get the smell of formaldehyde off my hands. In the same way, it has been taking a while for God to get the stench of scriptural dissection out of my life.

One of my life observations is that I have never seen a theologian growing the Kingdom of God but I’ve seen a lot of simple, even uneducated people doing it because of their experience with God’s transforming love and power. Look at the stories of the Samaritan woman that Jesus met at the well, or the demoniac at Gadara out of whom Jesus cast demons and sent them into the swine that ran off the cliff. What happened after he went away? They told everybody they met about how they had been changed by their encounter with the love and power of God. When Jesus returned the entire population of the villages came out to be healed, to have demons cast-out and to hear his teaching.

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I see why this pile of words made it into print. Another Anti President Trump article.
Give us a break.


I completely disagree with this statement, biblical eschatology is not a divided pessimistic / optimistic message as described by the author - it has always been about the return of our Lord Jesus (Matt. 24), about our redemption, about the final end of evil and misery, about the victory of the Lamb over Satan. Ever since the Apostles, they included, the followers of Jesus have been praying for and expecting this final redemptive messianic event.

This is a rather unfortunate and biased view from someone who doesn’t agree with it. I am quite certain no one needs the SDA premillennial eschatology to feel pessimistic about human history and destiny these days, even without turning the nightly news, which I finally decided to stop watching years ago.

William, (@WFNoel) I don’t think we have try to dissect the last verse of the Bible to know the smallest of details about the Second Coming before it happens, to show our knowledge, that is not the intent of prophecy, and yes I can fall in love with a God that knows the end from the beginning and decided to give me enough clues to feel reassured.
Instead of worrying so much about what is the right message to deliver lets each of us make an effort to just deliver it according to the light we receive from our own sincere Scripture reading, the way Jesus asked us (Matt 24:14), and yes it does include the Three Angels Message.

This to shall pass. At 93 With at 30% WWII disability, two hip replacements, a pacemaker, and a power chair, I see the future in Christ as total redemption. As to the present political scene The current administration has nothing to brag about. A commander in Chief who Twitters is nothing but a sleep deprived twit.


You say

"Trump is genuinely ecstatic and exuberant about the gains made by women, blacks and Hispanics, more particularly since rightly, he takes credit for it. His tax cuts, and deregulation have primed this job market!

“Particularly in light of the abysmal,economic record of his predecessor!”

You have it wrong: policies put in place by an administration take effect over time, usually several years. As to the state of the economy, and the status of women and minorities–if these are good now, the credit belongs mainly to the actions of the previous administration. Obama’s record is not “abysmal”–it’s pretty good, as far as I can see. As to Trump’s record, the results of his policies, we won’t know what these are for some time…

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The problem with the Three Angels Messages is that they are typically the first thing we present to people while presupposing that a person has a loving relationship with God, or that they will have one as a result of our presentation about those prophecies. Nothing could be further from the truth because so may people are not believers in God and so few of those who claim to believe in God love him. The greatest doctrine in scripture is NOT the Three Angels Messages, as many Adventists will tell you. It is simply this: God LOVES you. Nothing else is as important as that and without God’s extreme and radical love first and foremost in our teaching the other doctrines quickly become wedges driving people away from God. Evidence of that is how quickly attendance drops off at an evangelistic crusade after the Three Angels Messages are presented. Instead, we need to be teaching about God’s love first, foremost and always and everything else after that.


Sounds like you’re missing Barack. Well, I’m not. Excuse me, but I have an MBA so I know a bit about economics. Borrowing spiritual terms, the economic revival we’re seeing in America is not the result of his policies, but the result of having repented from them. Any claim of it being the result of Obama’s policies is pure political balderdash.

I have to give Obama credit for setting some economic records. The longest period of the slowest growth in national history. The lowest percentage of people with jobs. The greatest growth in the national debt. The highest Black unemployment in the history of labor statistics. The most people receiving public assistance. The greatest number of factories closing and businesses moving overseas to escape some of the highest corporate taxes in the world. The fastest growth in the imposition of environmental regulations on the planet. All of those things produced a net shrinkage in the size of the national economy and the economic doldrums we were seeing.

The economic revival we’re seeing is the direct result of economic repentance. For the last three months we’ve seen more job openings than the number of unemployed people. Wages are rising for the first time in ten years. Unemployment in all sectors is setting new record lows. Factories are opening at a faster rate than at any time in the last half-century (including a lot of jobs in industries that Barack said were never coming back). Business are moving back to America from overseas. According to the Wall Street Journal, the American economy has grown by more than $6 TRILLION since Trump was elected.

Amazing what a little economic repentance can do!


I agree that without teaching God’s love for us the rest matters little, but I also remember watching Doug Batchelor “apocalyptic” series, back in the late 90s where he started it by saying that those that had come to hear sensational predictions would likely be disappointed and then he followed by describing the Plan of Salvation and how it had evolved through millennia to the First Coming, Etc. Etc. This was really so important at that time especially in anticipation of the year 2000, which had captured the imagination of many. Yes, I have also listened to series of some old timer evangelists who some in these circles would label “beastly preaching”, but on balance the SDA organization tries hard, no one applying fair judgement can compare us to the likes of Hal Lindsey for example, who is incidentally quite popular in spite of all his failed predictions of the end of the world.
The Three Angles Message is a tough sell for some but I am sure you noticed there is only one church preaching it, that in itself should make all critical SDAs pause and think


Our structural premillennialist position must not push us to necessarily embrace a radical and unilateral apocalyptic pessimistic vision of humanity and society.<<[

It is not “just SDA’s that embrace a non-dispensational pre-millennial” position. Christianity Today’s founding editor held this view. Carl Henry and others were in conflict with “liberal/progressive” views entering mainline churches from the “Higher Criticism German school” teachings. Henry and others,among other things, noted these overly optimistic views of society and humanity that differed little from “Social humanist.”

By Ed Sanders, Theologue, Word Press-“Historic Premillennialism” derives its name from the fact that it was the dominant eschatological interpretation in the first three centuries of the Christian Church (Papias, Irenaeus, Justin Martyr, Tertullian, and others). This is in contrast to Dispensational (Pretrib) Premillennialism which began in the early 1800’s when John Nelson Darby ‘discovered’ this new and novel viewpoint(2).

Distinctive Features and Emphases Of Historic Premillennialism(3):
a. While often popularly confused with “dispensational premillennialism” with but a mere disagreement as to the timing of the “rapture,” historic premillennialism is, in actuality, a completely different eschatological system, largely rejecting the whole dispensational understanding of redemptive history.
b. The basic features of historic pre-millennialism are as follows. When Jesus began his public ministry the kingdom of God was manifest through His ministry. Upon His ascension into heaven and the “Gift of the Spirit” at Pentecost, the kingdom is present through the Spirit, until the end of the age, which is marked by the return of Christ to the earth in judgment. During the period immediately preceding the return of Christ, there is great apostasy and tribulation.
c. After the return of Christ, there will be a period of 1000 years (the millennium separating the “first” resurrection from the “second” resurrection. Satan will be bound, and the kingdom will consummated, that is, made visible during this period.
d. At the end of the millennial period, Satan will be loosed and there will be a massive rebellion (of “Gog and Magog”), immediately preceding the “second” resurrection or final judgment. After this, there will be the creation of a new Heaven and Earth.
Historic Premillennial Authors and Books
Some modern historic premillennialists and authors include George Eldon Ladd, Walter Martin, John Warwick Montgomery, J. Barton Payne, G. Campbell Morgan, Charles H. Spurgeon, Douglas Moo, Merrill Tenney, Robert Gundry, Wayne Grudem, Craig Blomberg, Carl F. H. Henry, and many others.

Without question, the most prolific and influential historic premillennialist was the late George Eldon Ladd. Through the work of Ladd, historic premillennialism gained scholarly respect and popularity among Evangelical and Reformed theologians. The two most highly recommended books on eschatology by Dr. Ladd are The Last Things - An Eschatology For Laymen, and The Blessed Hope."