Teaching Peace During Multi-Generation War

For the first time in U.S. history, soldiers are deploying to a war that began before they were born. Today’s youth and emerging adults have grown up in a world of endless war, fear, and resurgent nationalism. Yet they are open to new possibilities and increasingly engaged. The earliest Adventists spoke against war and bearing of arms, and in favor of peace and justice. Can this generation rediscover that vision?

On the morning of September 11, 2001, I was heading to my monthly staff meeting with the campus ministry leaders I supervised. At the time, I was Director of Young Adult and Campus Ministry for the Catholic Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston. Stopping at Kroger for some donuts, I was in the checkout line when I glanced up at a television, wondering why a grocery store would have it on. I saw the towers of the World Trade Center, and the smoke coming from the first plane’s impact. I got in my car and turned on the radio, and heard the speculation — was it an accident or intentional? When I got to my office, the second plane hit. That answered the question. We were under attack, and were now a nation at war.

We were told it would be long. President Bush said to Congress on September 20, “Americans should not expect one battle, but a lengthy campaign, unlike any other we have ever seen.”1 But we could not have known how long it would be. Babies and toddlers playing in front of the television that day, and others yet unborn, are now wearing the uniform and deploying to fight the war their parents deployed to. The Long War, the Global War on Terror, has become our nation’s first multi-generation war.

What has been the cost? We have fought in 80 countries. We’ve spent $6 trillion. Over three million U.S. service members have deployed. Nearly 7,000 U.S. service members have died and over 50,000 have been injured.2 And the toll on the nations we have gone to is even higher. It is estimated that “480,000 people have died from direct violence and 21 million people have become refugees …”3 There’s no telling how many have died from disease, or starvation, or any of the other secondary effects of war.

My question for you to consider is this: Can we teach this generation a different way? Can we plant in them the seeds of peace?

Adventists and War

The Seventh-day Adventist Church has been opposed to war since our beginning, cautioning members against volunteering and encouraging those who are drafted to serve as noncombatants. This position was most recently reaffirmed at the 1972 Annual Council.

“Genuine Christianity manifests itself in good citizenship and loyalty to civil government. The breaking out of war among men, however, in no way alters the Christian’s supreme allegiance and responsibility to God or modifies his obligation to practice his beliefs and put God first.

This partnership with God through Jesus Christ who came into this world not to destroy men’s lives, but to save them, causes Seventh-day Adventists to advocate a noncombatant position, following their divine Master in not taking human life, but rendering all possible service to save it. As they accept the obligation of citizenship as well as its benefits, their loyalty to government requires them willingly to serve the state in any noncombatant capacity, civil or military, in war or peace, in uniform or out of it, which will contribute to saving life, asking only that they may serve in those capacities which do not violate their conscientious convictions.

This statement is not a rigid position binding church members but gives guidance leaving the individual member free to assess the situation for himself.”4

On April 10-11, 2019, the General Conference hosted a conference on “Seventh-day Adventists and Military-related Service,” to review the church’s position and to hear reports from the Divisions. Speakers such as GC Health Ministries director Peter Landless (a veteran of the South African military), “drew attention to the need to teach Adventist children our position on war so that it will be clear in their mind when they become of age.”5 Said Mario Ceballos, GC Adventist Chaplaincy Ministries director, “We are not a people of war,” “We are a people of peace.”6

The Seventh-day Adventist Church was organized in the middle of the U.S. Civil War. Adventists were fervent abolitionists and they supported the Union cause, but they debated how they should respond to a draft. James White thought “it would be madness to resist,” and to do so would be “taking the responsibility of suicide.” But he invited different opinions, and in the issues of the Review and Herald that followed, members argued their positions.7 Yet when the church published an official statement in 1864 there was no hint of divided opinion. It said Adventists were willing to save life and care for the wounded, but refused to bear arms. They asked the government to regard them as one of the churches consistently opposed to military service. “While we thus cheerfully render to Caesar the things which the Scriptures show to be his, we are compelled to decline all participation in acts of war and bloodshed as being inconsistent with the duties enjoined upon us by our divine Master toward our enemies and toward all mankind.”8 Some members followed that counsel, some didn’t. One issue of the Review mentions two who were removed from membership for voluntary enlistment — one from the Battle Creek church (with no dissenting votes).9

The position of noncombatant service was reaffirmed after the war ended in 1865, again at the start of World War I, and again at the start of World War II. But in 1934 this clause was added: “The church does not attempt to dictate to its members individually, but each person must stand upon his own conscientious convictions.”10 The 1972 Annual Council added a similar clause: “This statement is not a rigid position binding church members but gives guidance leaving the individual member free to assess the situation for himself.”11 So churches which remove members for joining the military today (and there are some that do), are out of compliance with the church’s stated position.

These statements on the role of conscience are important. They show the consistency of the church’s position since the 1930s. More importantly, they underscore the approach we need to take in teaching young people: we are to give information and facilitate discussion that will help them make conscientious decisions.

Reality

Let’s look at the reality, however. We’ve upheld this noncombatant position better in some times and places than in others. In World War I some Adventists in the United Kingdom went to Dartmoor Prison, and were given brutal and degrading punishments.12 In Germany in WWI and WWII denominational leaders followed the prevailing political winds and embraced nationalism and militarism. Those who refused to bear arms were disciplined by both church and state. In the Nazi era, some Adventists went to concentration camps or were executed: Fritz Bergner, Hans Brüning, and Willi Kollmann were but three of the church’s martyrs who were faithful to the end.13 In the United States, on the other hand, the Adventist Church established a program to prepare youth for noncombatant service. The Medical Cadet Corps started in the 1930s and continued through World War II, ending with the end of the draft in 1972; it taught principles of noncombatancy, life-saving skills, and military drill and ceremonies.14

But after the draft ended, the church in North America dropped the ball. We have had no curriculum. Our engagements with youth as Adventist Chaplaincy Ministries have been sporadic. As former GC director of ACM, Gary Councell, said,

“… (S)ince the cessation of the Vietnam conflict and termination of conscription in the United States (1973), the Adventist Church benignly neglected to address the issues of military service or instruct young adult members about noncombatancy in our church journals, educational curriculums, or Sabbath schools. Medical Cadet Corps training disappeared, mostly from lack of interest. Conference leaders and church educators wrongfully assumed Adventists would not voluntarily enlist in the military services.”15

When the church fails to form the conscience according to Christian principles, the society will do so according to its values and passions. After 9-11, many young men and women joined the military with their veins coursing with patriotism — including Adventists. They saw it as a just cause, and a defensive war. They’ve joined, and not just as medics, like Desmond Doss or the volunteers of Operation Whitecoat. They’ve joined as combatants in every branch. And yes, many have also served as medics, doctors, and nurses — and as chaplains, who go with love wherever our service members go.

I had served as an Army chaplain in the Army Reserve and Vermont National Guard from 1986 to 1996; in 2009 I “re-upped” (as we say) in the Texas Army National Guard. In 2013 I deployed to the Middle East as part of Operation Enduring Freedom. I came home, but the war continued. I only went once, but others have had multiple deployments. One of my nephews has deployed seven times, another deployed six.

I think we need to do more for youth than just talk about the church’s voted positions through history. We need to do more than lift up heroes and exemplars like Desmond Doss or the Whitecoats. We need to talk about war and peace in light of the tragedies and horrors of the wars in the century and a half since the founding of the church. We need to talk about the nature of war and its impact on the countries caught up in it, and the impact on the soldiers who fight it.

In the nearly 18 years of the Global War on Terror, relatively few U.S. service members have died — 6,996 as of May 7, 2019. But over 7,500 veterans die each and every year from suicide.16 That is 125,000 since 9-11. Twelve of those names are engraved on my heart. Fifty thousand have come home from deployment wounded in body, decorated with a Purple Heart. Tens of thousands more have come home wounded in their soul, sometimes with “bad paper,” a Dishonorable Discharge that excludes them from most VA services. We have spoken of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder since the 1980s (though stress injuries have been noted in all wars). More recently, we have been hearing of Moral Injury, which can occur when the sense of right and wrong has been violated, when individuals have been forced to do or see things that went against their conscience.17

War has impacted us in other ways. Our homeland has changed since 9-11. We’ve gone from a nation that was united in service during the days after the attack to a nation torn by fear, with politicians embracing demagoguery, scapegoating those who are different, and stirring up racist and nationalist passions long dormant. We have justified surveillance and the diminishment of civil liberties through the Patriot Act and we have defended the torture of captured foes at Abu Ghraib, Guantanamo, and countless “black sites” around the world.

Violence is increasing at home as well, with rising numbers of mass shootings in workplaces, houses of worship, and schools. The one that hit closest to home for me was at Santa Fe High School in Texas, about an hour from my house. A friend from the county mental health agency reached out to me and asked me to assist in providing support, and I did so for two days. I spoke to students, teachers, and parents still in shock. One student told me his family had just moved there to get away from gang violence in the city that had taken the lives of two of his friends. I also saw students and their community coming together, encouraging one another, and looking with hope to the future.

Reasons for Hope

What I saw in Santa Fe I have seen around the country — youth, young adults, and families impacted by tragedy turning their anger and passion into action. Some student survivors like David Hogg of Parkland, Florida, have become vocal advocates for change. Rhonda Hart, whose daughter, Kimberly Vaughan, was murdered at Santa Fe High School, is running for school board in a neighboring district (she left Santa Fe soon after the shooting). Phil Robertson, a 2018 Santa Fe graduate said, “How can this happen and you still hold the same views you had before it happened? … There are things we could do about this…”18

Our teaching of peace needs to address both the horrors of war and the possibilities of peace. It needs to tap into the desire of young people to make a difference. We can start by sharing the many statements about peace that the Seventh-day Adventist Church has issued over the years; a selection can be found on the webpage of the Adventist Peace Fellowship.19 Two statements were issued in opposition to the invasion of Iraq. Others condemned war in Congo and Kosovo. The church has opposed the sale of assault weapons to civilians. It called attention to the dangers of climate change back in 1995.20

World leaders of the Seventh-day Adventist Church have also underscored the connection between social justice and peace. At a conference in Moscow in 1985, then GC president Neal C. Wilson said to Mikhail Gorbachev and other attendees:

“Our Christian commitment compels us to reappraise the contribution we may make to peace and the social justice intrinsic to peace. In the person of the God-man who walked among us as one of us, we see divinity and humanity combined. Thus we cannot serve God without also serving our fellowman. Not only in His incarnation but in His ministry to us we see an example of how we should relate to a choice between conflict and peace.”21

Beyond the mere reading of statements, we need to find ways that young people can be involved in making a difference in the community and the world. And we are already doing that, through local service projects and mission trips, through student missions and through internships with organizations like ADRA. These are opportunities for youth to meet new people and visit new places, to serve others, to see the face of Christ in those in need, and to know that they are making a difference. You may recall the statement by Mark Twain,

“Travel is fatal to prejudice, bigotry, and narrow-mindedness, and many of our people need it sorely on these accounts. Broad, wholesome, charitable views of men and things cannot be acquired by vegetating in one little corner of the earth all one’s lifetime.”22

A 2013 study validated Twain’s suggestion, finding “a robust relationship between the breadth of foreign travel experiences and generalized trust.”23

One of the things I appreciate most about my 2013 deployment to Kuwait was the opportunity to explore the country, experience the culture, and build relationships across lines of division. I participated in several “Soldier and Leader Engagements” with Islamic Affairs officers of the Kuwait Ministry of Defense. I invited them to give presentations to my Unit Ministry Teams and the Soldiers of my unit on Islamic faith and practice, and what American Soldiers in Kuwait should understand about the nation and its beliefs. I took Soldiers on tours of the Grand Mosque of Kuwait; we visited art and culture museums including the Dar al-Athar al-Islamiyyah; we wandered the corridors of the Souq Al-Mubarakiya (where I introduced them to an Iranian Shia rug merchant). In Doha, Qatar, we went to the Museum of Islamic Art. Everywhere we went they were greeted warmly. Many expressed surprise that what they experienced ran counter to everything they saw in the U.S. media about the Middle East, regardless of the source.

Young people are open to new experiences and new insights. I was a freshman at Atlantic Union College when I found a note from the dean in my mailbox. He was assigning me a new roommate — an English as a Second Language Student from Egypt named Abdel. We hit it off immediately. Over the next months, over many cups of tea, with the music of the Egyptian diva Umm Kulthum playing in the background, we explored each other’s Scriptures and beliefs. We talked about world politics and about college life. We built a lasting friendship, and it became the base for a lifetime of work for me in interfaith dialogue and teaching World Religions.

As our nation (and the students in both public and Adventist schools) become more diverse, more youth are exposed to these life-changing encounters. We can build intentionality into them through organized discussions and common service. I love the model provided by the work Keith Burton did at the Center for Adventist-Muslim Relations at Oakwood University, and what some of our leaders in Adventist-Muslim Relations are doing in the Chattanooga area. My daughter, as a student at Andrews University, participated in mission trips to Honduras and to Beirut and Jordan. She spent a year at Campus Adventiste du Salève, where she polished her French skills. After graduation, she did a yearlong internship with ADRA in Madagascar. That quote by Mark Twain is one of her favorites, because she has seen the evidence in her own life and the lives of her friends.

As I explore ways to teach about war and peace, I’m reading more by Anabaptist and Quaker authors, and the experiences of other Conscientious Objectors in our nation’s wars. I spent an afternoon at Menno-Hof, a museum of Anabaptist history and life in Shipshewana, Indiana. I love some of the materials published by the American Friends Service Committee, especially their pamphlet, “Ten Points to Consider Before You Sign a Military Enlistment Agreement” (with suggestions like taking their time, talking to veterans about their experiences, making sure they get every promise made by the recruiter in writing, and that they have someone review the contract before they sign it). I’m looking at academic programs like those at the Anabaptist Mennonite Biblical Seminary in Elkhart, Indiana. A friend of mine has taught at the Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies at the University of Notre Dame. They host the annual Notre Dame Student Peace Conference for undergraduate and graduate students each Spring. They also have a Summer Institute for Faculty in Peace Studies, which I’ve been invited to participate in this year. So, this presentation is a sketch of a work in process for me, a snapshot of a point along the journey, and I hope to be able to report back to you on more at a later date. I invite your suggestions and your contributions.

We have a rich heritage as Adventists that we can mine. We have inspiring examples of courageous individuals that we can highlight. At the same time, we need to be honest about our failures, and the negative examples of Adventist experiences in Germany, in Rwanda, and even in the United States. We need to study the lessons of nationalistic fervor in 20thcentury Germany, of tribal divisions in Rwanda, of racism and segregation in the United States and apartheid in South Africa. We need to ask how someone like Vernon Howell, known to history as David Koresh, was able to appeal to Adventist young people. We need to take our Adventist statement with its appeal to conscience and apply it to other areas of the spiritual formation of youth and young adults.

In making this call for teaching of peace, I’m echoing an invitation others have made from time to time. The 2002 GC Statement, “A Call for Peace,” made the same plea.24 It said,

“The Seventh-day Adventist Church operates what may be the second largest worldwide parochial school system. Each of its more than 6,000 schools, colleges, and universities is being asked to set aside one week each school year to emphasize and highlight, through various programs, respect, cultural awareness, nonviolence, peacemaking, conflict resolution, and reconciliation as a way of making a specifically “Adventist” contribution to a culture of social harmony and peace. With this in mind, the Church’s Education Department is preparing curricula and other materials to help in implementing this peace program.

The education of the church member in the pew, for nonviolence, peace, and reconciliation, needs to be an ongoing process. Pastors are being asked to use their pulpits to proclaim the gospel of peace, forgiveness, and reconciliation which dissolves barriers created by race, ethnicity, nationality, gender, and religion, and promotes peaceful human relations between individuals, groups, and nations.”

I haven’t seen evidence that this was done. I’ve written to several people who have served in the GC education department to ask whether that “peace program” was ever produced. It looks like the recommendation was ignored (except for special issues of the Journal of Adventist Education in 2003 and 2008). It’s up to us to make it happen. So much has happened since 2002. So much fear and division have darkened our land. Youth and young adults are ready to let their light shine. Let us help them kindle that flame.

Notes & References:

1. George W. Bush, “President Bush Addresses the Nation,” September 20, 2001. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/nation/specials/attacked/transcripts/bushaddress_092001.html

2. http://icasualties.org;

https://www.militarytimes.com/news/pentagon-congress/2018/11/14/price-tag-of-the-war-on-terror-will-top-6-trillion-soon/

3. https://the1a.org/shows/2019-02-14/how-global-is-the-global-war-on-terrorism-for-the-u-s-very-global;

https://www.gwotmemorialfoundation.org/News/three-memorial-day-conversation-starters-from-the-global-war-on-terror-memorial-foundation/

4. Minutes, General Conference Committee, October 5, 1972. 72-1171. http://documents.adventistarchives.org/Minutes/GCC/GCC1972-10a.pdf

Minutes, North American Division Committee on Administration, October 5, 1972. 72-120. http://documents.adventistarchives.org/Minutes/NAD/NAD1972-10.pdf

5. Kevin Burton, “Adventist Leaders Discuss Military Service, Non-Combatants & Conscientious Objectors,” Adventist Today, April 12, 2019. https://atoday.org/adventist-leaders-discuss-military-service-non-combatants-conscientious-objectors/

6. Ibid.

7. George R. Knight, “Adventism and Military Service: Individual Conscience in Ethical Tension,” in Theron F. Schlabach and Richard T. Hughes. Proclaim Peace: Christian Pacifism from Unexpected Quarters. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997. Pp. 161 ff.

8. Francis M. Wilcox. Seventh-day Adventists in Time of War. Washington, DC: Review and Herald, 1936. P. 24

9. Knight, p. 165. “As voluntary enlistment into the service of war is contrary to the principles of faith and practice of Seventh-day Adventists as contained in the commandments of God and the faith of Jesus, they cannot retain those within their communion who so enlist. Enoch Hayes was therefore excluded from the membership of the Battle Creek church, by a unanimous vote of the church, March 4, 1865.” “The church of Plum River and Green Vale, Ills., met on the 22nd day of January in business capacity, and, after due deliberation, withdrew their fellowship from Hiram N. Bates, who has voluntarily enlisted in the U. S. service, thereby showing that he was not in harmony with the views of the Seventh-day Adventists.” Review and Herald, 25 (March 7, 1865), p. 112.

10. Seventh-day Adventists and Civil Government, p. 12.

11. Minutes, General Conference Committee, October 5, 1972. 72-1171. http://documents.adventistarchives.org/Minutes/GCC/GCC1972-10a.pdf

Minutes, North American Division Committee on Administration, October 5, 1972. 72-120. http://documents.adventistarchives.org/Minutes/NAD/NAD1972-10.pdf

12. See the documentary, “A Matter of Conscience.” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-qSLHb0TGcQ

13. Daniel Heinz, “Adventist Opposition to War in Europe: Cases of Nonconformity and Conscientious Objection,” in Frank M. Hasel, Barna Magyarosi, and Stefan Hoschele, eds. Adventists and Military Service: Biblical, Historical, and Ethical Perspectives. Madrid, Spain: Safeliz, 2019. Pp. 135ff; 144-46.

14. Deena Bartel-Wagner, “Medical Cadet Corps to be Revitalized.” Adventist News Network, May 9, 2018 https://news.adventist.org/en/all-news/news/go/2018-05-09/medical-cadet-corps-to-be-revitalized/

15. Gary Councell, “Challenges for the Church,” in Barry Bussey, ed. Should I Fight? Essays on Conscientious Objection and the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Belleville, ON: Guardian Books, 2011. Pp. 343-44.

16. https://www.stripes.com/news/us/va-reveals-its-veteran-suicide-statistic-included-active-duty-troops-1.533992

17. See David Wood, What Have We Done: The Moral Injury of Our Longest War. New York: Little, Brown and Co., 2016. Robert Emmet Meagher, Killing from the Inside Out: Moral Injury and Just War. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock, Cascade Books: 2014. Andreas Bochmann, “Psychological Effects of War and Pastoral Care,” in Hasel, Adventists and Military Service, pp. 183 ff.

18. Sophie Novack, “‘Do Something with This Grief’: Mom of Santa Fe Shooting Victim Turns to Politics,” Texas Observer, April 23, 2019. https://www.texasobserver.org/do-something-with-this-grief-mom-of-sante-fe-shooting-victim-turns-to-politics/

Rhonda Hart is on Twitter: @kimsmom3

19. http://www.adventistpeace.org/historical-documents

20. https://www.adventist.org/en/information/official-statements/statements/article/go/-/the-dangers-of-climate-change/

21. Neal C. Wilson, “Proposal for Peace and Understanding,” Ministry Vol. 60, No. 5 (May 1987): 23ff. https://cdn.ministerialassociation.org/cdn/ministrymagazine.org/issues/1987/issues/MIN1987-05.pdf

22. Mark Twain, Innocents Abroad, conclusion. https://www.gutenberg.org/files/3176/3176-h/3176-h.htm

23. Cao, J., Galinsky, A. D., & Maddux, W. W. (2014). “Does Travel Broaden the Mind? Breadth of Foreign Experiences Increases Generalized Trust.” Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5(5), 517–525. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550613514456

24. https://www.adventist.org/articles/call-for-peace/

William Cork is Assistant Director of Adventist Chaplaincy Ministries for the North American Division. He is a former chaplain in the Army Reserve.

This article was originally prepared for the 180 Symposium sponsored by the Center for Youth Evangelism at Andrews University, May 7-9, 2019 (it is reprinted here with permission). All the papers will be published in a forthcoming volume by AdventSource.

Photo by Public Domain Photography from Pexels

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This is a companion discussion topic for the original entry at http://spectrummagazine.org/node/10242
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Is peace always justice?

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No…”peace” can come from fear, repression…or even complacency.

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Peace isn’t always justice, that is true. But violence isn’t necessarily an appropriate response either.

We had no choice but to use force to oppose Hitler. There are times when aggression must be halted. Biblical Israel demonstrates that in bloody detail. I have always felt that the old testament was a poor example of how to deal with conflict. It is so uncharacteristic of what Jesus would have done.

I was a white-coat. I never felt that we did anything special. But I have utter and complete regard for Desmond Doss, who I feel was a true patriot of our country, but at the same time, an exemplary example of what a true Christian should be. No one who studies the life of Desmond Doss could come away without understanding what God truly wants from us in these circumstances. I have been dismayed at how, in recent years, Adventists have become disinterested in being non-combatants. I have always felt that service to our country can be carried out through saving lives just as importantly as taking them.

I agree. But, who is the “we” that you are referring to? Non-Adventists? Non-Christians? If everyone wanted to be a non-combatant, who would be left to take out the Hitlers? If you feel very strongly about being a non-combatant, that is your right. But your dismay that “Adventists have become disinterested in being non-combatants” seems to imply that Adventists should only be non-combatants, while others should be the ones who do the most dangerous job of fighting the Hitlers of this world. If an Adventist feels called to be one of the combatants, why the dismay? Not everyone has the same call…SDA or not.

I do understand that anyone can be in danger whatever their job may be, if they are in the field, including any type of medical personnel.

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My husband was a White Coat as well.

My feeling is that each individual deals with aggression toward them on a personal level; but there is no excuse for not defending the innocent. If someone else’s life is in danger I would like to think I would react to save them whatever it took.

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When I went through basic training as a non-combatant. Our company, about 400 men, were about 99% SDA. There were a couple of Catholic Priests and maybe one or two Mennonites or Quakers.

That doesn’t sound like everyone will want to be a conscious objector. But I do understand your point. If there is no one to stand up to the Hitlers, there is a problem. I just don’t think it is a legitimate problem. Certainly, it wasn’t in Viet Nam and now it is an all voluntary military. If I were of age to be in the service and wanted to participate. I would make 100% sure that I could be in a non-combatant position or I simply wouldn’t join.

For me, this isn’t about being in danger, but about causing danger. I was not a CO because I was afraid I would be killed on the battlefield. There were many in my basic training company that were killed in Viet Nam. As a matter of statistical fact, the two highest instances of fatality in that conflict were officers and medics. So being a medic was not a way of being out of harm’s way. But, it had everything to do with a person’s conscience.

I agree, that’s why I stated that medical personnel were also in harms way.

Yes, Vietnam was a terrible time. A couple of my friends lost siblings during the Vietnam War, and my cousin was killed there too. Sad, tumultuous times. Thank you for serving. Were you in Vietnam? I wasn’t totally sure if you were sent there or not by your comment.

No, as I mentioned in an earlier post, I was a white-coat, which is mentioned in the article we are commenting on.

I might also add, that I understand that some people must be the ones who carry weapons and fight. But in this aggressive world of ours, I am absolutely sure there will always be enough of them. There needs to be someone there also who is willing to drag their damaged bodies off the killing fields and put them back together again.

I too lost several friends in that war that I went through training with. I find today, the most difficult thing to resolve is the fact that we lost 55 thousand men for relatively no reason. The country fell to the communists several years later, but now the country of Viet Nam has overthrown the communists as well and is an independent socialist/capitalist state. So they got to where we would have wanted them to be even though we pulled out. But not because of the lives of those 55,000 plus the countless injured and the thousands of men who came home but couldn’t cope and took their own lives. That is the very thing we are seeing now. I just read that 125,000 service men have taken their own lives after returning from combat after 9/11. That’ over twice as many as we lost in Viet Nam.

That is the unspoken tragedy of war.

War is an insane way to resolve conflict.

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I couldn’t agree more that the Vietnam War was a total waste of those 55,000 lives. It’s infuriating. The endless wars that we have been in for decades are beyond senseless. IMO, these are “bankers wars”.

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The motive for beginning wars or responding to wars is usually where most of the controversy exists. In this article there is a motive of teaching peace. Having been attacked as our nation was on 9/11 we had a very justifiable reason for responding to defend our country. What initiated the attack on 9/11 is probably debatable depending on if you speak with U.S.A. citizens or citizens from Islamic nations. Either way, it was not an appropriate action. Now we need to be very careful on how we explain peace and how it is obtained when we speak with our young people in this great nation. Peace can, and at times must, be obtained through strength or God would not have performed such tragedies during old testament biblical times. The stories of David show this, as well as other patriarchs. These stories are shared in children’s SS classes and story time/hours in church and in books. I like to avoid these when talking with children under 10 simply because the brain development has barely reached the ability to be logical.
I must say that I am so very proud of having a USA president that is opposed to chasing after wars but instead believes strongly in peace through strength, and uses our countries strength with wisdom. And, I will add that I believe it is ok to bear arms when necessary for protection and defense. It would probably be wise for some deacons to carry concealed firearms during church gatherings too. Peace with common sense is something to be taught to our young people too.

Thanks for this peace piece. Let me just make one observation which pertains to the commentaries as well. The “we” that the article and the commentators espouse sounds like “we as Adventists”, but in reality it is an ethnocentric “we as U.S.-Adventists”. That makes me from Europe wonder whether you are talking about your faith community or your nation. I can’t tell the difference, honestly. I also can’t see a global perspective for a global church here. And that leaves me somewhat bewildered with the traditional position of non-combatancy. How are you non-combatant by engaging in a combatancy-system like the military (by medical, technical or spiritual support)? Are we happy when two Adventists sign up for each of the two opposing sides in an armed conflict as long as they just stitch together what their combatant comrades left behind? Is that peacemaking?
When I was drafted at the end of the 80s, I refused to join the military and had to serve 20 instead of 15 months doing social work (ambulance driving and so on). But I wasn’t part of the military which was important to me. Luckily my country offered that solution. I think there should be a conscientious decision as to whether one opts for the military or not. But to seek a non-combatant position within the military is still an ethical oxymoron to me.

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Thanks, Dennis. Noncombatancy is the voted position of the General Conference, not simply the North American Division. As I wanted to point out, it is part of a wholistic position that is pro-peace. We have a call to be active in the work for peace, not simply carving out a space where the individual conscience can be soothed while giving tacit acceptance to the war machine.

The US in the Vietnam era did allow for alternative service. Some Adventists participated in this, along with Quakers, Mennonites, and others who refused to be part of the military in any way. The GC included that part about individual conscience to allow pacifist Adventists this option.

There are tensions, as you indicate. Can one be part of the system?

There are some in the US that are indeed tempted by nationalism and give excuses for war, even seek to justify it.

I think your position reflects that of most of the Europeans I know, living in the shadow of how the German church embraced nationalism in the first half of the 20th century. I think Carlyle Haynes did the same thing in his pushing a vision of Adventist as super patriots. Interesting research has been done which leads me to think this was his reaction to Bureau of Investigation questioning of church officials in WW1 and censoring church publications critical of the “land beast” of Revelation with two horns like a lamb which spoke like a dragon.

I appreciate your witness. Thank you.

I was moved by the recent film, A Hidden Life, about Austrian CO Franz Jägerstätter, executed for his refusal.

I think the separation of Christianity from every form of nationalism is a critical need. Germany, Rwanda, and the US all are case studies in the danger of nationalism and rationalization.

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See Neal Wilson’s comment which I quoted: “social justice [is] intrinsic to peace.” It is the necessary foundation.

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Just because we talk a lot about peace doesn’t make us a peaceful people - especially as you have quoted - “social justice [is] intrinsic to peace. It is the necessary foundation." That doesn’t seem to include the place of women as part of social justice. I wouldn’t describe the SDA church as peaceful despite all the talk about justice.

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WOW, what a true statement! I hope people will take it seriously when they vote in November, not only for POTUS but for other offices as well, including the Senate,

Does Social Justice include elimination of any kind of discrimination, even discrimination against women? This should be seriously considered during the voting in July, at the GC as well.

There has not been peace in the SDA church. The persistent discrimination of women has caused a lot of disturbance and conflict. Until discrimination is eradicated from our midst, peace will remain wishful thinking.

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One of the politicians of the Vietnam era said it best, I think:

“I’m fed up to the ears with old men dreaming up wars for young men to die in.” ~ Senator George McGovern

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Bill Cork,

This is one of the best articles on peacemaking for the Adventist Church that I have read. Thank you so much for the personal, poignant, positive, and clear-eyed perspective. I am glad we’re on the same team. Union College did a Peace Week for about a decade, and Walla Walla has done one also.

The Afghanistan Papers proved what the Pentagon Papers and the Iraq Papers also proclaimed: War is about money and power and lies. With all of its ancillary and residual horrors, Ellen White was right in calling war Satan’s greatest triumph. Even Hitler’s rise to power was bred and fomented by WWI, the “war to end all wars.”

Let me know how I can help in your continued efforts. I’ll do whatever I can.

Chris

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