The Cosmic Controversy

The biblical worldview of the “cosmic controversy” is the “great controversy.” The cosmic controversy rages between Christ and Satan over the character of God, His law, and His sovereignty in the universe. This conflict originated in heaven with Lucifer who became Satan, God’s adversary. He introduced the spirit of rebellion into heaven and, later, into this world when he led Adam and Eve to sin. This world became the theater of the universal conflict, the drama of sin and Salvation.[1]Sin originated mysterious in Lucifer’s heart. Lucifer comes from two Latin words: Lux and Ferro. Lux means light and Ferro means Bearer. Thus, Lucifer would mean “Light Bearer,” “shining one,” and “brilliant one.” The term appears in Isaiah 14:12 in a passage in which the Babylonian king seems to appear as a symbol of Satan prior to his being cast out of heaven.

Lucifer was the most exalted of the angels in heaven. The fault was not God's, for Lucifer was created perfect (Ezek 28:15). As stated previously, the mysterious existence of sin cannot be explained. Ellen G. White affirms,

It is impossible to so explain the origin of sin as to give a reason for its existence. . .. Sin is an intruder, for whose presence no reason can be given. It is mysterious, unaccountable; to excuse it, is to defend it. Could excuse for it be found, or cause be shown for its existence, it would cease to be sin. Our only definition of sin is that given in the Word of God; it is “the transgression of the law;” it is the outworking of a principle at war with the great law of love which is the foundation of the divine government.[2]

From Isaiah 14:12-14, one can say that Lucifer was dissatisfied with his role, and he permitted envious thoughts to control him. There are three important aspects in relation to Lucifer: first, God created him perfect, second, he was a creature, and third, sin was found in him. Consequently, evil originated in his heart mysteriously; the fault was not God’s for Lucifer was created perfect (Ezek 28: 15). In other words, sin cannot be explained but its roots can be traced back to the pride that filled his heart (Ezek 28:17).

Pride is a sin, the greatest sin of all. “It is one of the dangers of great success. Those to whom much is given fight intensive spiritual battles against pride. Pride glorifies man and robs God of the glory that only he deserves. Pride is a weapon that Satan wields with great skill.”[3] The apostle Peter says, “God is opposed to the proud, but gives grace to the humble. Humble yourselves, therefore, under the mighty hand of God, that He may exalt you at the proper time” (1 Pet 5:5, 6). Therefore, pride is like a beard. It just keeps growing. The solution? Shave it everyday[4]

The fall of Adam and Eve to sin and the role of Satan can be outlined as follows:

Adam’s Fall:

  1. Commandment given: God said, “You must not eat from the tree” (Gen 2:17).
  2. Commandment questioned: Satan questioned and said, “did really God said so” (3:1)
  3. Commandment denied: Satan uttered the first lie in the Bible when he said, “you will not surely die” (3:4).
  4. Commandment disobeyed: The Bible says that “Adam ate of it” (3:6)

Eve’s Fall:

“When the woman saw that the fruit of the tree was good for food and pleasing to the eye, and also desirable for gaining wisdom, she took some and ate it” (3:6).

  1. Eve saw the fruit
  2. Eve desired the fruit
  3. Eve took the fruit

The Tactics of Satan:

Satan’s cunning used in Genesis 3 continues to be used today to bring about humankind’s fall.

  1. Doubt: doubt makes us question god’s word and his goodness.
  2. Desire: Adam and eve were motivated by greed and the desire to gain wisdom.
  3. Doing: with doubt in their minds they acted on their desire and sinned.

Results of Rebellion:

  1. Companionship lost (3:8)
  2. Guilt (3:7)
  3. Fear (3:10)
  4. Refusal to accept personal responsibility:
    1. Adam implied it was Eve’s and God’s fault (3:12)
    2. Eve implied it was the serpent’s fault (3:13)[5]

The fall of Adam and Eve brought the entire world into sin. By their disobedience, sin was extended to this earth with its cosmic conflict. Thus, Christ offered to come to this earth and die, taking the place of sinners. The first promise of salvation is recorded in Genesis, when God said, “and I will put enmity Between you and the woman, And between your seed and her seed; He shall bruise you on the head, And you shall bruise him on the heel” (Gen 3:15 NAS). Martin Luther was the first to call Genesis 3:15 the protoevangelium, that is, the first gospel promise. Martin Luther said of this verse: “This text embraces and comprehends within itself everything noble and glorious that is to be found anywhere in the Scriptures.”[6]

Seventh-day Adventists believe that the cross of Jesus has universal, as well as a local planet, significance. Jesus came to answer a charge against the justice of God that preceded the human need for salvation. He also came to live and to die for the salvation of the human race.

After Christ defeated Satan on Calvary, He went to heaven to be the mediator between God and man (1 Tim 2:5). The war between good and evil continued to attack the seed of the women. “This war has raged through much of Christian history (Rev. 12:6, 14-16) and will continue until the end (Rev. 12:17), until Satan faces another defeat, this time at the second coming of Jesus” (p. 4). The persecution of the people of God continued for 1,260 years—starting at 538 and continuing to 1798 during the papal supremacy. Revelation 12:17 represents five major battles: (1) the battle for people’s minds (vv. 4, 5); (2) the attack upon the “man child” (Christ) (vv. 4, 13); (3) the persecutions from the time Christ ascended to heaven and continued through the Dark Ages (v. 13); (4) the persecutions that took place during the wilderness time (v. 6, 14 – 16); and (5) the last attack against the remnant church. White writes:

These persecutions, beginning under Nero about the time of the martyrdom of Paul, continued with greater or less fury for centuries. Christians were falsely accused of the most dreadful crimes and declared to be the cause of great calamities — famine, pestilence, and earthquake. As they became the objects of popular hatred and suspicion, informers stood ready, for the sake of gain, to betray the innocent. They were condemned as rebels against the empire, as foes of religion, and pests to society. Great numbers were thrown to wild beasts or burned alive in the amphitheaters.[7]

Seventh-day Adventists have been given great privileges not only to proclaim the Sabbath truth, but also to declare the soon coming return of Christ. Hence, the name Adventist points to two important truths of the end time—present truth: the law and the gospel. The gospel is the good news that even if we commit a sin and transgress the law of God, Christ’s death on the cross, on our behalf, forgives our sins and amends us with the broken law. The law of God is binding on believers and virtually contains the whole revealed will of God, as to the matter of obedience. This seems to be embraced in what White called, “the allegiance of love,”[8] that is, love manifested through allegiance. This allegiance of love leads to faithfulness.

[1]Leo R. Van Dolson, RELT 255 Christian Beliefs Syllabus (Berrien Springs, MI: 1980), 46.

[2]Ellen G. White, The Great Controversy (Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press, 1911), 492, 493.

[3]Warren W. Wiersbe, The Strategy of Satan: How to Detect and Defeat Him, Adapted from the Studies (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale, 1996), 65.

[4]Michael P. Green, 1500 Illustrations for Biblical Preaching (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2000), 287.

[5]Mark Water, The Book of Genesis Made Easy (Alresford, Hampshire: John Hunt, 2000), 18.

[6]Sue A. Allen, I Didn’t Want to Be That Girl!: A Look into the Life of Eve (Bloomington, IN: WestBow, 2016), 210.

[7]Ellen G. White, The Great Controversy (Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press, 1911), 40.

[8]Ellen G. White, Patriarchs and Prophets (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald, 1890), 35.

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This is a companion discussion topic for the original entry at

I might suggest tweaking the list:
Genesis 2:16 The Lord said you may freely eat of every tree of the garden. vs. 17–but not…
showing an abundant providence

Genesis 3:1 The crafty serpent said (the first lie) “Did God say, you shall not eat from any tree?”—making God look stingy

In those two verses one can see the essence of the Cosmic Conflict. Satan is lying about God and making Him look stingy—misquoting the words with innuendo.

Thank you.

The term [Lucifer] appears in Isaiah 14:12 in a passage in which the Babylonian king seems to appear as a symbol of Satan prior to his being cast out of heaven.

I think Isaiah would say, “That’s news to me!”

The king of Babylon claimed to be the Morning Star. In Eastern mythology, the Morning Star was the son of the god of morning. Isa 14 states that he was writing a taunt song pretending to believe the king’s claim. In his song, dead pagan kings belittle the king saying that he is a mere man (that’s not Satan!), that he will die soon (that’s not Satan!), and that that they won’t let him join them because hell is too good for him. (How many Adventists have the faintest idea that Isaiah never mentioned any fallen angels named Satan or Lucifer or any other name?)

Addressing him in his Morning Star pretention, Isaiah described how that planet–we call it Venus–periodically rises above the most high (get it?) sun at dawn, going even as high as the clouds (where the gods supposedly dwelt) only to be cast down again to the earth (every day, in season). When Latin developed, LATER ON, the Romans coined the word Lucifer as the name for the brilliant Morning Star and Jerome correctly used this Latin name in his Latin translation of the Bible (the Vulgate). When he referred to Jesus as the Morning Star in Revelation, He called Him Lucifer too! (Sorry, no Lucifers at all in the original Hebrew or Greek scriptures.)

Eventually, the Church Fathers selectively picked pieces from Isaiah and Ezekiel, etc., and concocted a “history” of Satan that the Bible never heard of. Then John Milton expanded it into Paradise Lost and ultimately it became the story that we are all so familiar with.

4 That thou [captive Israelites] shalt take up this proverb against the king of Babylon, and say, How hath the oppressor ceased! the golden city ceased!
9 Hell from beneath is moved for thee to meet thee at thy coming: it stirreth up the dead for thee, even all the chief ones of the earth; it hath raised up from their thrones all the kings of the nations.
10 All they shall speak and say unto thee, Art thou also become weak as we? art thou become like unto us?
11 Thy pomp is brought down to the grave, and the noise of thy viols: the worm is spread under thee, and the worms cover thee.
12 How art thou fallen from heaven, [the Hebrew word for heaven was the Hebrew word for sky] O Lucifer, son of the morning! [Isaiah knew that the Morning Star god was supposedly the son of the Morning god.] How art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!
13 For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven [the sky], I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north:
14 I will ascend above the heights of the clouds ; I will be like the most high [sun].
15 Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit.
16 They that see thee shall narrowly look upon thee, and consider thee, saying, Is this the man that made the earth to tremble, that did shake kingdoms;

Note: Isaiah does not read, “Is this the angel”, but “Is this the man?”

17 That made the world as a wilderness, and destroyed the cities thereof; that opened not the house of his prisoners?
18 All the [other dead] kings of the nations, even all of them, lie in glory, every one in his own house.
19 But thou art cast out of thy grave like an abominable branch, and as the raiment of those that are slain, thrust through with a sword, that go down to the stones of the pit; as a carcase trodden under feet.
20 Thou shalt not be joined with them in burial, because thou hast destroyed thy land, and slain thy people: the seed of evildoers shall never be renowned.
21 Prepare slaughter for his children for the iniquity of their fathers; that they do not rise, nor possess the land, nor fill the face of the world with cities
22 For I will rise up against them, saith the Lord of hosts, and cut off from Babylon the name, and remnant, and son, and nephew, saith the Lord.

					 (Isa 14:4-22)

Is it enough to just say- "…the mysterious existence of sin cannot be explained - and leave it at that? it seems we get ourselves off the hook much too easily by attributing everything bad that happens and every sin we’re tempted with, to this “entity” that comically sits on our shoulder and whispers in our ear (times the population of the earth). "Satan - Lucifer - Devil, whatever the name, is purported to be a created being. How does “he” get to have the same abilities as the Holy Spirit of God, dividing himself into gazzilion parts, tempting each individual at every step of the way - as though “he” is equal to God, the Creator of the universe, ( himself, a created being)?

The battle between good and evil has already been won - “It is finished.”. If you and I, still being sinful, can see that, surely the universe, dedicated to the will of God, must know that as well; and doesn’t need us to prove the character of God. The character of God was settled at the cross.


That’s an interesting perspective. It says, “the serpent was more cunning than all …” So in reading the story again, I wondered where was the cunning in his approach and to what end? What was he really trying to achieve? And why did he try to achieve it that way?

The objective seemed to have been to make Eve, at least, believe that she didn’t need God. God exists, yes. But she was quite capable of making it on her own – on one condition. And therein lay the catch. There was this fruit that if eaten was going to make its consumer wise beyond belief – like God Himself! Even God “may have eaten” it but did not want to share it. God wanted the glory all for Himself.

So you have this two-prong attack:

  1. God is selfish
  2. You don’t need Him (if you know the secret of His power)

Amazingly, in so doing and without Eve realizing it, the serpent projected himself unto God and painted God in the devil’s own colours. It is only in the temptation of Christ, the Second Adam, that we see clearly where this was all heading. The serpent said to Christ, “All these things I will give You if You will fall down and worship me.” Mat. 4:9

Therein lay the cunning, the method and the objective: “You’re hungry aren’t you? Well, I have something to satisfy your hunger that doesn’t cost much. And what is the price? I want your soul!” In modern terms, “The love of money, fame and title is the root of all evil. Again and again, the serpent says, I want your time. I want your energy. I want your homage. I want to make you ruthless to get by. And then I want you to spit in the face of God in your misery.

Classic case of the crab in a barrel: YOU WILL NOT GET OUT OF HERE, EVER! John 10:10


That is good news but is not the gospel.
The gospel is the good news of grace which addresses guilt & DEPRAVITY.

At least this week’s SS lesson for Thursday doesn’t mess it up…

“The gospel is good news, the good news that though we have sinned in that we have broken God’s law, through faith in what Christ did for us at the cross we can be forgiven our sins, for our transgression of His law. Also, we have been given the power to obey that law, fully and completely.”

It is so unfortunate that some/few? SDA members will spend a whole quarter on Eschatology, speculation & paranoia…mouthing lip service about the 2nd coming of Jesus of which a minority/few really want anytime soon and yet don’t even know what the gospel is…or for that matter what grace or salvation entails.

The SDA church has given so much exposure about it being the Laodicean church that most don’t really know that it seems more like the Sardis church laying in a coma …requiring revival & reformation.

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I noticed the bold print, as you intended. I assume you speak from experience.


Adventism is very close or even a step beyond John Wesley and miles apart from Paul. The Finished work of Christ brings us Gratitude to the Godhead and generosity toward our fellow man. A Christian worships Christ as Creator, Redeemer, and coming King of Kings none of which calls for boasting of advanced standing now or prior to the Second Coming.


And you have this power, and are fully and completely obeying the law?

I would sincerely like to here more about your experience in this area.


You astutely observe:


I agree one thousand per cent!

So why is EGW’S “the universe”, by which I think she means, the unfallen Angels and the unfallen beings on other planets, so obtuse, so undiscerning, so dimwitted, as to have not grasped this fact ??

Why are they not clamoring to God, protesting, that way back at Calvary, they were adequately convinced that God was good, and Satan was evil ??

Was not this God’s desire : an acknowledgment of his mercy and justice and love, as magnificently exemplified by Calvary?:

Surely “the universe” had “live streaming “.of the horrific crucifixion scenes?

Apparently the horrific murder of the Son of God, left them unconvinced, because the “controversy “ continues unabated!

Why is “the universe” still “sitting on the fence”, unresolved, uncommitted, impassive?

Are the inhabitants on other worlds, as dim witted as depicted in the movie PLANET OF THE APES ??

It would seem so, since even the Holocaust, and other abysmal atrocities, leave them apparently indifferent, impassive, icy, incognizant…

When the evening newscasts filled with anguish, atrocities and agonies, leave me agonized, how come six thousand years of “live streaming” of earth’s atrocities, has not YET persuaded “the universe.” to,reach a final arbitration and demand an ultimatum : a mandated, expedited, Second Coming, to finally end the miseries of mankind.??

So, as appealing, and persuasive EGW’s GREAT CONTROVERSY was in my youth, in my old age, the whole scenario crumbles, because it makes no further rational sense to any astute onlooking observer.


Why did Paul write “Oh wretched man that I am”.?

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Jesus Christ did not come to prove that God’s character was beyond reproach, that God was love, to disprove the lies of the Devil, to show that the Law can be kept, etc, etc, as Ellen White asserted. The revelation of God was simply a “by-product” of the first Advent. As you so pointedly imply, “the universe” is not THAT dimwitted to have doubted the wisdom of God until then. After all, He had to destroy the antediluvians already, the reason for which everyone of consequence knew.

The Bible says why Jesus came by providing insight into what God was looking for.

  1. In the days of Noah: Then the Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every intent of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. And the Lord was sorry that He had made man on the earth, and He was grieved in His heart. So the Lord said, “I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth, both man and beast, creeping thing and birds of the air, for I am sorry that I have made them.” But Noah found grace in the eyes of the Lord. Gen. 6:5-8

  2. In the days of Job: Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord, and Satan also came among them. And the Lord said to Satan, “From where do you come?” So Satan answered the Lord and said, “From going to and fro on the earth, and from walking back and forth on it.” Then the Lord said to Satan, “Have you considered My servant Job, that there is none like him on the earth, a blameless and upright man, one who fears God and shuns evil?” Job 1:6-8

  3. In the days of Moses: Then the Lord said to me, “Arise, go down quickly from here, for your people whom you brought out of Egypt have acted corruptly; they have quickly turned aside from the way which I commanded them; they have made themselves a molded image.” Furthermore the Lord spoke to me, saying, “I have seen this people, and indeed they are a stiff-necked people. Let Me alone, that I may destroy them and blot out their name from under heaven; and I will make of you a nation mightier and greater than they. Deut. 9:12-14

  4. In the days of Jesus of Nazareth: When He had been baptized, Jesus came up immediately from the water; and behold, the heavens were opened to Him, and He saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and alighting upon Him. And suddenly a voice came from heaven, saying, “This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.” Mat. 3:16-17

But of all, only Jesus of Nazareth fulfilled the legal requirement of earth’s representative before the Throne of God, being from birth the perfect Son of God made like Adam, the beginning of the human race a second time. Only he could have faced the Devil, at the end of His life, and say with definitive certainty, “You have no hold over Me!” John 14:30

The world continues not to prove anything, but that if it had ended long ago, you would not have been here and therefore to make it incumbent upon you to bow before the Mercy Seat in gratitude for the life and opportunity that has been given to you in earth’s stay of execution. As Jesus said, “It is not for you to know times or seasons which the Father has put in His own authority. But you shall receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be witnesses to Me in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth.” Acts 1:7-8

In short, in this life, there will be much trouble, but for the sake of others yet unborn, known to God alone, we must endure until we die. And then, at the last day, He will raise us up, everyone at once. everyone who had returned to Him, to live forever.

I have fought the good fight, I have finished the race, I have kept the faith. Now there is in store for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, will award to me on that day—and not only to me, but also to all who have longed for his appearing.” – Paul of Tarsus.


On the other hand, maybe it was pretty simple: The Adams (Eve was named such after their departure from the garden) saw the yummy looking fruit, picked it and ate it, same as I did with two donuts today. There is no good excuse, we are weak and fallen and despise ourselves for it, But God in his mercy… And, so not looking forward to this quarter’s SS lessons, The End Times; any volunteers to teach in my place during June?

James Peterson,
You astutely observe :



In my humble opinion :
if God was truly a God of love, and if Noah truly found grace in the eyes of the Lord,
the kindest, most loving thing God could have done,
would have been to translate Noah and his family to heaven,
and leave Satan to occupy planet earth ALONE.

GRIEFS, TORTURES, and other human wretchedness…

That God placed Noah in the Ark, instead of sending him to heaven, surely makes Him accountable for all of earth’s later miseries /misfortunes , calamities, catastrophes, scourges, pestilences.

The omniscient God foresaw all these future calamities and willfully chose to continue Earth’s miseries, thus making Him co-dépendant and complicit in humanity’s later pain!

I was addressing the reason for the first advent within the context of the cosmic conflict, not the reason for you eating two donuts and despising yourself for it.


There is another way of looking at this.

Adam was motivated by love for wife. He was ready like most men–to die for them, to protect and keep them safe. Adam was a good husband. As Scriptures say he was not deceived as to the mistake of Eve. His problem was he passionately loved this physically perfect God-given women. I think 99% of men would also. She was God’s gift, his answered prayer for a companion. She was part of himself. It was love and respect for the gift of God NOT “greed” that caused Adam to eat the fruit. To Adam he was in a lose-lose situation. It was the right thing to take the fruit offered by Eve, for the wrong reason.

Eve was deceived and enchanted with the idea of gaining wisdom, knowing right from wrong. Her noble heart wanted to be educated, to gain an understanding of virtue and wisdom. There was no “greed,” just a desire for knowledge that would enable her to make good decisions and please God.

The idea that God was holding something back from her and she believed it was indication that she was very uneducated about the character of God. How many of us have made bad decisions in life because we lacked understanding and wisdom?

Lets put ourselves in her position in the garden. The world was almost magical in its harmony and peace. Thus she would not be surprised at a talking serpent. There was no mother, sister or older women to discuss matters over with–she was all alone. The only woman in all the world. Sadly her mental programming left her very gullible. To be a good wife and some day a mother–she felt incredibly needy. Who could blame her for wanting a fast track to wisdom, knowledge and understanding? I think if we could ask her if she wanted to make a mistake she would replay, “Oh, no of course not, I am doing this so I won’t make mistakes.”


If you ever have the opportunity of being CEO of a Fortune 500 company, take it. At that level, you will discover that your decisions would sometimes appall the temp staff working feverishly in the boiler room in some small-town America to meet some urgent deadline. For temp staff, their one concern is, “How much are you going to pay me for how many hours and then will you hire me?” As CEO, your concern is so far removed from that, as the stars are above the head of an ant crawling about foraging for food. You are occupied instead in preparations for the next earnings conference call with investors and analysts.

In the life and, especially the death of Jesus Christ, God gave some understanding of His far-reaching and all-encompassing thinking. Jesus prayed, “Father, if it is Your will, take this cup away from Me; nevertheless not My will, but Yours, be done.” Luke 22:42

You are concerned about “YEARS OF MISERY FOR MANKIND, ATROCITIES LIKE THE HOLOCAUST, COUNTLESS RAPES, MURDERS, GRIEFS, TORTURES, and other human wretchedness…” Yes indeed, but why did God not spare His only-begotten Son such brutal humiliation as death by crucifixion too?

Here is another one. The saints in vision cry from the alter, “How long, O Lord, holy and true, until You judge and avenge our blood on those who dwell on the earth?” And what is God’s response? “Then a white robe was given to each of them; and it was said to them that they should rest a little while longer, until both the number of their fellow servants and their brethren, who would be killed as they were, was completed.” Rev. 6:10-11

The world continued because God, in His foresight, saw you a long time ago; not you only, but others yet unborn. And everyone born in this world comes under the Devil’s hammer (John 16:33). All God is asking is that you endure through the night, "for joy comes in the morning!" Psalm 30:5


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  1. Adam, in his defense statement said, “The woman whom You gave to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I ate.” In other words, “The woman deceived me.”

  2. Eve, in her defense statement, following Adam’s lead, said, “The serpent deceived me; and I ate.

  3. And the serpent stood there with its mouth open. “You think you know a guy,” it thought to itself.

Both Adam and Eve were trying to blame God by implying that it was all because He had not removed the opportunity for temptation. They found no reason for repentance. It wasn’t a case of them saying, “We’re sorry. Please forgive us! We’re definitely not going to do this again! We promise.” Instead, they dug in and began to excuse themselves one by one, ending up with one culprit: God – who should have known better than to allow the serpent in in the first place.

That is why the punishment was so incredibly severe. Through pain and suffering they were to experience the fullness of the Devil’s work, and hopefully find it in themselves to repent and return to God. “[But] there is a generation that curses its father, and does not bless its mother. There is a generation that is pure in its own eyes, yet is not washed from its filthiness. There is a generation—oh, how lofty are their eyes! And their eyelids are lifted up.” Prov. 30:11-13


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Second guessing God is a no brainer. How far does the Cross reach? The point to remember it reaches you and me and all the issue of Adam. To be lost is to reject God’s unspeakable gift. The book of Job should give early heads up. [quote=“ezbord, post:10, topic:15697”]

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James ,
Sounds like you are a universalist, when you state:
JOY COMES IN THE MORNING,—- presumably, (hopefully )
for ALL of wretched humanity.
I am a universalist also, — I believe ALL will be saved,
ALL will have JOY in the morning—-
—the least God can do is take us all to heaven
after having so willfully inflicted so much misery on mankind!

James, you rightly ask:
Why did Cod not spare His only begotten son, such brutal humiliation?

My response :
:Two wrongs do not make a right.

If you willfully kill your own Son, that does not give you carte blanche
to also inflict pain/suffering /misery and yes, humiliation
on billions of unsuspecting humans who never asked to be
born on this wretched planet, just so that you, God, could be “vindicated “,

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