Sorry but I really wanted to put the nail in a sure place
I did some research and I must admit that I was wrong in thinking that the way of reckoning lunar sabbaths just came out of the blue. In fact, there are some well documented cases in ancient history where the weekly cycle was indeed reset every new moon, BUT, as I explain below, lunar sabbaths have a pagan origin and they are incompatible with the way of reckoning the 7th day sabbath of the Bible.
I first want to share another reason (beside the creation week) why lunar sabbaths contradict the Bible, and that is Leviticus 23, the chapter where God instructed the Hebrews concerning all their feasts and holy convocations - including the 7th day sabbath - with extreme precision and details.
Advocates of the lunar sabbaths teach that the weekly cycle was reset every new moon and that lunar sabbaths fell on the 8th, 15th, 22nd and 29th day of each month (the 1st day of each month being a new moon holiday). So any remaining days at the end of a month were ignored and the weekly cycle was reset the next month.
However, Leviticus 23:16-17 tells us that the feast of Pentecost was to occur exactly 50 days after bringing “the sheaf of the wave offering”, and it also tells us that the period of 50 days corresponds exactly to the completion of seven weekly sabbaths: that would be impossible if the weekly cycle was reset every new moon!
“And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the sabbath, from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the wave offering; seven sabbaths shall be complete: Even unto the morrow after the seventh sabbath shall ye number fifty days; and ye shall offer a new meat offering unto the Lord.”
The seven sabbaths obviously spaned over at least two consecutive months, yet there is no such thing as the weekly cycle being reset at the beginning of a new month: 7 sabbaths <=> 7 weeks <=> 49 days ==> lunar sabbaths are incompatible with the Bible!
Another point that I find very interesting is the fact that in Lev23:3 the 7th day Sabbath is set apart from all other feasts and holy convocations.
In verse 2, Moses is instructed to proclaim the feasts and the holy convocations, but in verse 3 Moses only proclaims the 7th day sabbath.
In verse 4 however, Moses is instructed to proclaim the feasts and the holy convocations in their seasons then he lists all the remaining feasts and holy convocations : Passover (14th day of the 1st month), day of atonement (10th day of the 7th month), etc…
“And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years.” (Gen 1:14)
To summarize, in Leviticus 23, God set the 7th day sabbath apart from all the other feasts. The 7th day sabbath is determined by a weekly cycle of seven days composed of six days of work followed by the sabbath of rest while the other feast are determined by the seasons (new moons).
The feast of Pentecost occurred 50 days after the wave offering (firstfruits), and in Leviticus 15-16 this period of 50 days (spanning over at least two consecutive months) is said to correspond exactly to the completion of seven weekly sabbaths: that would be impossible if the weekly cycle was reset every new moon ==> lunar sabbaths are incompatible with the Bible!
I believe that God, in his wisdom and foreknowledge, proclaimed the feasts of Leviticus 23 in such a way as to reveal that lunar sabbaths did not come from Him.
So where did they come from?
I did some research and I found that some ancient Babylonian cuneiform writings reveal that: ancient Babylonians followed a lunisolar calendar (with lunar month), they had a seven-day week cycle which was reset every new moon and they observed sabbaths (which were in fact called “evil days” and I did not expect less from a counterfeit religion inspired by Satan himself!) which fell on the 7th, the 14th, the 19th, the 21st and the 28th of each months.
The Babylonian cuneiform writings were found in Nineveh in 1869 and they were drawn in this book : “The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia: Vol. IV: A Selection from the Miscellaneous Inscriptions of Assyria” (1875, 2nd Edition: 1891 / 1909) , H. C. Rawlinson
I found another book entitled “Cuneiform Parallels to the Old Testament”, R. W. Rogers, (also available online) which addresses the Babylonian “sabbaths texts”. Below are some interesting quotes :
“The month in Babylonia was a lunar month, and the year was a lunisolar year. Unlike the Egyptians, who passed from moon- to sun-reckonings before the dawn of history, the Babylonians always retained the primitive lunar calendar, harmonized with the solar year by the crude method of intercalating an extra month at the necessary intervals. As in all lunar calendars the month began with the visible new moon.” (p. 226)
“In the year 1869 the late George Smith, well known as a pioneer student of Assyriology, discovered among the cuneiform tablets in the British Museum “a curious religious calendar of the Assyrians, in which every month is divided into four weeks, and the seventh days, or ‘Sabbaths’, are marked out as days on which no work should be undertaken.” Six years afterward Sir Henry Rawlinson published this calendar in the fourth volume of his standard collection of cuneiform inscriptions. It appears to be a transcript of a much more ancient Babylonian original, possibly belonging to the age of Hammurabi, which had been made by order of Asshurbanipal and placed in his royal library at Nineveh. The calendar, which is complete for the thirteenth or intercalary month, called Elul II, and for Markheshwan, the eighth month of the Babylonian year, takes up the thirty days in succession and indicates the deity to which each day is sacred and what sacrifices or precautionary measures are necessary for each day. All the days are styled “favourable”, an expression which must indicate a pious hope, not a fact, since the words ud-khul-gal or umu limnu (“the evil day”) are particularly applied to the seventh, fourteenth, nineteenth, twenty-first, and twenty-eighth days.” (p. 222-223)
“The calendar for Elul II contains specific directions for the observance of the five "evil days", in each case the same except for differences in the names of the deities. The regulations for the seventh day read as follows :
"An evil day. The shepherd of great peoples shall not eat flesh cooked upon the coals, or bread of the oven. The garment of his body he shall not change, he shall not put on clean [garments]. He shall not bring an offering. The king shall not ride in his chariot. He shall not speak as -a ruler (?). The priest shall not give a decision in the secret place. The physician shall not lay his hand on a patient. To issue a malediction it [the day] is not suitable. At night the king shall bring his gift before Marduk and Ishtar, he shall offer a sacrifice. The lifting up of his hands will then be pleasing to god." (p. 232)
It’s truly amazing that the Babylonians “evil days” are almost identical to the lunar sabbaths:
Babylonian “evil days” : 7th, 14th, 19th, 21st, 28th of each month (new moon)
Lunar sabbath : 8th, 15th, 22nd, 29th of each month (new moon)
It is also interesting that the way of reckoning lunar sabbath is found nowhere in the Bible not even in Leviticus 23 which describes all the Jewish feasts very precisely, yet it is found in ancient Babylonian writings with almost the same level of precision and attention to details that is found in Leviticus 23 with only an offset of one day.
The Jewish Encyclopedia’s entry on the Jewish week indicates that lunar sabbaths may have been used by some Jews some time in the past but the text does not specify when, where and by who was this custom adopted, and there is zero source/evidence to substantiate the assertion. Moreover, there were often controversies among Jews about worship and doctrine (Elijah vs prophets of Baal, Jerusalem vs Samaria, Jesus vs Pharisees/scribes, Pharisees vs Sadducees, Karaite Judaism vs Rabbinic Judaism, etc…) and they often apostatized and corrupted the plain teaching of the Bible with fabricated traditions or pagan rites and customs.
So, if the lunar sabbaths were ever prescribed among some Jews at some point of time in the past, which is possible, I would not be surprised if it was among some of the Jews exiled in Babylon, who would have incorporated Babylonian customs into their own religious practices. It would not have been the first time such thing had happened after all (there were Jews who bowed down and worshiped the “image” set up by Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon).
It is also interesting that, even today, the Jews use Babylonian names for their months. In the Bible only four months of the calendar are identified by name while the others are simply numbered (even the Jews do not know the original Hebrew names for those months):
The 1st, 2nd, 7th, and 8th month of the calendar are called Aviv, Ziv, Eltanim, and Bul in the Bible, while today the Jews call them Nissan, Iyar, Tishrei and Cheshvan which are Babylonian names.
All in all, it would not be surprising that some Jews adopted not only the Babylonian way of naming their months but also the Babylonian way of reckoning their sabbaths.
To conclude, I think it is obvious that lunar sabbaths did not come from God as they clearly contradict the Bible. Rather, it is very likely that they came strait from Babylon.
So, there are three sabbath options (only two in fact):
The 7th day sabbath of the Lord made in Eden (Gen 2:1-3, Mark 2:27-28)
The Lunar sabbath (“evil days”) of ancient Babylon
The Sunday sabbath of modern Babylon which is papal Rome (and her daughters): MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH (Rev 17:5)
“And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues. For her sins have reached unto heaven, and God hath remembered her iniquities.” Revelation 18:4-5